The array factor (AF) for a uniform linear array is given by:

\[AF(\theta) = \sum_{n=0}^{N-1} e^{jn(kd\cos\theta + \beta)}\]Where:

- N: Number of elements
- k: Wave number (2π/λ)
- d: Element spacing
- θ: Angle from broadside
- β: Progressive phase shift

The directivity can be approximated as:

\[D \approx 10 \log_{10}(N)\]- Input the number of elements, element spacing, and phase shift
- Calculate the array factor (simplified in this calculator)
- Calculate the directivity using the approximation formula

For an array with 4 elements:

\[D \approx 10 \log_{10}(4) \approx 6.02 \text{ dB}\]This visual shows a simplified representation of an antenna array pattern. The actual pattern would depend on various factors including the number of elements, spacing, and phase shift.

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