Stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other. It is defined as the force applied per unit area of a material. Stress is a fundamental concept in physics and engineering, used to analyze and design structures, materials, and components.

The formula for stress is:

\[ \sigma = \frac{F}{A} \]

Where:

- \( \sigma \) is the stress (in Pascal, Pa)
- \( F \) is the force applied (in Newtons, N)
- \( A \) is the area over which the force is applied (in square meters, m²)

Let's calculate the stress for a given force and area:

- Given:
- Force (\( F \)) = 1000 N
- Area (\( A \)) = 0.1 m²

- Apply the stress formula: \[ \sigma = \frac{F}{A} \]
- Substitute the known values: \[ \sigma = \frac{1000 \text{ N}}{0.1 \text{ m}^2} \]
- Perform the calculation: \[ \sigma = 10,000 \text{ Pa} = 10 \text{ kPa} \]

Let's visualize stress on a material:

This diagram illustrates:

- The material under stress (green rectangle)
- The applied force (\( F \)) represented by red arrows
- The area (\( A \)) over which the force is applied
- The resulting stress (\( \sigma \)) distributed across the material

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