Mass-energy equivalence is a fundamental concept in physics, proposed by Albert Einstein as part of his theory of special relativity. It states that mass and energy are interchangeable, and that any mass has an equivalent amount of energy associated with it. This principle is expressed by the famous equation E=mc², which has profound implications for our understanding of the universe and has led to numerous practical applications, from nuclear power to particle physics.

The mass-energy equivalence formula is:

\[ E = mc^2 \]

Where:

- \( E \) is the energy (in Joules, J)
- \( m \) is the mass (in kilograms, kg)
- \( c \) is the speed of light in vacuum (299,792,458 m/s)

Let's calculate the energy equivalent of a mass of 1 kg:

- Given:
- Mass (\( m \)) = 1 kg
- Speed of light (\( c \)) = 299,792,458 m/s

- Apply the mass-energy equivalence formula: \[ E = mc^2 \]
- Substitute the known values: \[ E = 1 \text{ kg} \times (299,792,458 \text{ m/s})^2 \]
- Perform the calculation: \[ E = 1 \times 89,875,517,873,681,764 \text{ J} \] \[ E \approx 8.99 \times 10^{16} \text{ J} \]

Let's visualize the concept of mass-energy equivalence:

This diagram illustrates:

- Mass (blue circle) and Energy (green circle) as two forms of the same fundamental quantity
- The equation E = mc² (red arrow) showing the relationship between mass and energy
- The concept of equivalence (yellow curve) demonstrating that mass can be converted to energy and vice versa

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